Menticol online dating
These analyses reveal movements of concordant with geographic and climatic events of the late Cenozoic.
The initial diversification of extant bumble bee lineages was estimated at around 25 to 40 Ma, near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary 34 Ma, a period of dramatic global cooling.
) are a cold-adapted, largely alpine group that can elucidate patterns of Holarctic historical biogeography, particularly in comparison to the alpine plants with which they likely coevolved.
Accordingly, many high latitude and alpine flowers have a floral syndrome suited for the long tongues and learning-based foraging of bumble bees (Heinrich, 1979; Macior, 1982).
This research has culminated in the recent publication of a comprehensive phylogeny including 218 taxa of the ∼ 250 species based on five genes (Cameron et al., 2007).
This nearly complete species sampling allows a more accurate assessment of historical patterns and provides multiple well-supported clades for assessing temporal trends in biogeography and diversification.
In this article, I examine the historical biogeography of bumble bees using the comprehensive species phylogeny of Cameron et al. Patterns of dispersal are placed in an environmental context using divergence time estimates derived from fossil and ecological information and molecular rates from the literature.
The nearly complete species sampling also provides an appropriate framework to make reliable assessments of temporal patterns of diversification, which are analyzed for various clades of interest using LTT plots and diversification statistics, with the stability of these results tested across a body of nearly optimal trees and using a slightly modified data set.
Their patterns of distribution are heavily influenced by vegetation zones and the temperature isotherms that shape them (Medler and Carney, 1963; Løken, 1973).